What do you know about Uzbekistan?

 1. What were the names of the first ancient states, which existed on the territory of modern Uzbekistan?
Bactria: A lowland country situated in the mid-flow of the Amudarya River. It incorporated southern parts of today's Uzbekistan, southwestern areas of Tajikistan and the northern provinces of Afghanistan. Its origins can be traced back to the Bronze Age civilisation, contemporary of the Old Babylonia.
Sogd (Sogdiana): This historical area of Central Asia occupied the territory between the rivers of Oxus (Amudarya) and laxartes (Syrdarya). The name 'Sogd' was first mentioned in the Avesta, the holy book of the Zoroastrians. In the 8th century ВС, the city of Marakanda (now Samarkand) became the capital of Sogd.
Khorezm: This was an ancient region of Central Asia whose centre was situated down Amudarya. Archaeologists believe Khorezm to have been a powerful state with a number of fortified cities and huge irrigation constructions as long ago as the 8th-7th centuries ВС. The Avesta contains some historic references to Khorezm. Herodotus, the 'father of history', also mentions Khorezm and Khorezmians.
The Dayuan (Chinese name for Ferghana): A country which existed in the Ferghana Valley from the first centuries ВС to the first centuries AD. Historical chronicles describe the Dayuan as an urbanized country with seventy cities and towns. The country was famous for its horses ('glorious argamaks,' heavenly horses) which brought about the Chinese-Dayuan war of 104-102 ВС.

2. What cities of Uzbekistan were founded before the Common Era?
Samarkand is one of the oldest cities in the world. A contemporary of Ancient Rome, Samarkand was founded as the capital of Sogd circa the 8th century ВС.
Bukhara is more than 2500 years old. The occupation layer in the city's territory is 20 metres deep. At its lower part archaeologists have discovered the remains of public buildings and private houses, tools, and pieces of jewellery dating back to the 4th century ВС.
Khiva is one of the cities of Ancient Khorezm. According to archaeological data, the city was established some 2500 years ago. In ancient times, it was known by the name of Kheivak.
As is known from history, the ancient name of Termez was Taramastkha or Tramata, meaning 'on the river bank' in Bactrian. The Iranian Achaemenids, who occupied the area in the 6th century ВС, believed Termez to be an ancient city.
Tashkent became known in the 2nd - 1st centuries ВС. In the earliest Chinese chronicles, Tashkent was referred to as Shi, Zheshi and Yueni. In the early Middle Ages people
knew it as Chach, Shash and Jach. In the 11th century, the city acquired its present name, Tashkent, meaning 'a stone city' (from Uzbek tosh, 'stone').
The first records about Kokand can be found in the accounts of Xuanzang, a Chinese diplomat and traveller. He visited the Dayuan in the Ferghana Valley circa 138 ВС.

3. Great scholars born in the territory of Uzbekistan.
Ai-Khorezml (783 - app. 850); Abu Abdallah (or Abu Jaffar) Muhammad ibn Musa al Khorezmi, whose Latinized name sounded as 'Algorithm!', was a great mathematician, astronomer, geographer, and the founder of classical algebra. Al-Khorezmi was born in Khiva, and according to his genealogy, descended from the family of a Zoroastrian priest who later adopted Islam.
Al-Ferghani (797 - 865): Akhmed ibn Muhammad ibn Kassir was born in Ferghana. The European world knew him under his Latinized name 'Alfraganus'. For 700 years, Europe considered Al-Ferghani's papers on astronomy an encyclopedia and teaching aids. He invented the Nilometer by which the rise and fall of the Nile could be measured. This graduated pillar is still known as Cairo's landmark.
Al-Biruni (973 - 1048): Abu Raikhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad ai-Biruni, an outstanding scholar of encyclopedic learning, was born in Khorezm. He authored various books on medicine, pharmacology, history, geography, mathematics, astronomy, geodesy, philology and mineralogy. Al-Biruni calculated the Earth's radius and obliquity of the ecliptic. He also described lunar and solar eclipses. Having analyzed the solar corona, he made an assumption that both stars and the sun, unlike planets, are hot gaseous masses.
Ibn Sina (980 - 1037): Abu Ali Hussein ibn Abdallah ibn Sina, or Avicenna, was born in the village of Afshana near Bukhara. He is a world-famous medieval scholar, philosopher, doctor and musician. Avicenna's treatises were extremely popular both in the East and in the West. His encyclopaedia of theoretical and clinical medicine, 'The Canon of Medicine', is a summary of the views and experiences of Greek, Roman, Indian and Central Asian medical doctors. For many centuries, 'The Canon of Medicine' served as the most important handbook in medicine. Its Latin version had run into more than thirty editions.
Ulugbek (1394 - 1449) Mirzo Muhammad ibn Shokhrukh ibn Timur Ulugbek Gurganj was the grandson of Tamerlane and the ruler of Samarkand. His accomplishments in astronomy and mathematics earned him great respect. Fora longtime Ulugbek's star catalogue, New Guragan Tables, was considered the best in the world. In 1665 it was published in Oxford and was reprinted many times with numerous commentaries.

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